Vertical agreements are therefore considered by competition authorities to be less likely to lead to anti-competitive practices. Although competition problems may arise, where a contracting party has significant market power, or if there are a number of similar agreements that, together, could have an impact on the market. The parties must operate at different levels of the chain only within the meaning of the specific agreement, i.e. the parties can normally be competitors. However, when they act at different levels with respect to the agreement in question (. B for example, a manufacturer that agrees to deliver products made by another producer), it is a vertical agreement. If the market share of one of the parties changes over the life of the agreement, different rules apply and do not fall within the scope of this note. Compared to other vertical agreements, there is more flexibility. For example, the following types of agreements are not considered “pure” under the category exemption (they are called “non-hardcore”): the current category exemption for vertical agreements expires at the end of May 2022 and is currently under review. It is essential that the parties focus on the potential anti-competitive effects of a horizontal agreement and ensure that legal and real cooperation agreements between two or more companies do not move to Chapter I or Article 101 territory.
However, vertical agreements may present competitive risks if .B potential to increase barriers to entry, reduce or mitigate competition, and avoid other opportunities in the event of horizontal agreements.  In relation to the distinction between horizontal and vertical cooperation, the U.S. SC therefore distinguishes a greater distinction when horizontal provisions are more easily condemned, since the vertical regime is generally self-motivated. The European Commission has published guidelines on vertical restrictions to determine when an agreement should be exempt from the bans in Chapter I or Article 101. In general, vertical restrictions are less anti-competitive than horizontal restrictions. Measures that could be covered by these prohibitions for vertical agreements include: parties may include contractual restrictions or commitments in vertical agreements to protect an investment or to ensure day-to-day activity (e.g. B sales, supply or purchase agreements). To determine whether a vertical agreement is anti-competitive, several issues need to be addressed. The answers can determine whether the vertical agreement falls under the COMPETITION regime of the United Kingdom and the EU and, if so, whether the category exemption applies to vertical agreements: in order to qualify for the category exemption for vertical agreements, it must be a vertical agreement or a concerted practice between at least two companies that comply with the terms of purchase. , the sale or resale of services or goods.