Before conducting the analysis, it is important to correct any limitations of this file. Although TIF is the most comprehensive collection of international agreements to date, there is no data set listing each previous international agreement reached by the United States. Footnote 78 Researchers may try to supplement TIF with other contract collections to establish a more complete list of agreements. However, this is neither desirable nor feasible for several reasons. The main difference between the treaty and the executive agreement is that the treaty is a formally concluded, ratified and binding agreement between sovereign states and/or international organizations, while an executive agreement is an agreement between the heads of government of two or more nations. 36 The approved Restoration (fourth) project is remarkably silent on the issue of interchangeability, but there is no evidence that this silence supports those who argue against interchangeability. The authors of the Restatement (fourth) make it clear that they focus only on The Article II treaties and that they are not recipients of other international agreements. See Restatement (Fourth) of the Foreign Relations Law of the United States, p. 113, note 8 of journalists (March 20, 2017).
So far, there seems to be little sign of change in the scientific debate. See z.B. Bradley, Curtis A., Exiting Congressional-Executive Agreements, 67 Duke L.J. 1615 (2018) (contracts and executive agreements of Congress are considered largely interchangeable even after the adoption of the Restatement project (fourth). is a complementary log-log-room transformation of the base risk rate interval, h 0 (t j). This means that the base hazard rate can vary at each interval, requiring only light parametric assumptions. The U.S. Supreme Court Pink (1942) found that international agreements, which were concluded in law, have the same legal status as treaties and do not require Senate approval. To Reid v. Concealed (1957), the Tribunal, while reaffirming the President`s ability to enter into executive agreements, found that such agreements could not be contrary to existing federal law or the Constitution. Domestically, the issue of legal substitutability has traditionally been more controversial. Of course, there is little argument that congressional participation can be completely suppressed by replacing the treaty with the single executive agreement.
However, views on the interchangeability of contracts and agreements between Congress and the executive branch are less harmonious at the bottom of page 29. The Constitution does not explicitly mention the existence of an instrument similar to the executive agreement of today`s Congress, which gives rise to a debate on how to interpret that silence. For early proponents, it was more than enough to show that interchangeability offers flexibility and best describes the practice of American foreign policy to assert that treaties and executive agreements in Congress should serve as legal substitutes. Footnote 30 The later arguments were based on the idea of the existence of “constitutional moments” that would inform constitutional interpretation through the consistent practice of the President, Congress and the Supreme Court. Footnote 31 Such moments, which were created primarily by practice in the 1940s, would have changed the importance of the contractual clause, which was a constitutional basis for the executive agreement of Congress. Future research could remedy this limitation by sorting agreements to a more detailed level than is possible for the excitement of TIF data.